Dynamics in low-dimensional correlated quantum systems

Aachen / Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University (2014) [Dissertation / PhD Thesis]

Page(s): VIII, 194, XXV S. : Ill., graph. Darst.

Abstract

We study the dynamics in low dimensional correlated quantum systems. Advances in this thesis are three-fold. First, as a methodical point we extend the real-time formulation of the functional renormalization group approach introduced in [1]. Describing the transient time dependence of a given microscopic model prepared in an initial non-equilibrium state poses a formidable challenge in the presence of interaction. We successfully extend the functional renormalization group approach of [1] to finite temperature as well as extended interacting geometries. Furthermore, for both extensions we test the validity of the perturbatively motivated treatment by explicitly benchmarking to complementary methods and find that for not too large interactions the functional renormalization group proves to be quantitatively accurate. Second, we examine the non-equilibrium dynamics of open as well as closed quantum systems in the presence of correlations. We study a prominent prototype model for coherence in small quantum systems coupled to dissipative environments, namely the spin-boson model. We reveal that prevailing literature does not cover the full complexity of the dynamics encountered. The relaxation dynamics formerly classified as coherent and incoherent should be refined according to the results presented in this thesis: we propose a subdivision of the coherent regime into partially and asymptotically coherent. For the former the coherence signature of the dynamics is restricted only to intermediate times, while in the latter it extends in the asymptotic regime. Interestingly, we explicitly show that elevating temperature might be conducive to coherence, which is opposite to the expected behavior. For those closed quantum systems known to fall into the so called Luttinger Liquid universality class in equilibrium, we provide evidence that the equilibrium concept of universality seemingly carries over to the non-equilibrium steady-state. This is rather counter-intuitive, as universality is usually attributed to the low energy degrees of freedom only. Third, we study the thermoelectric transport properties of quantum dots. Quantum dots are promising candidates for highly efficient thermoelectric devices as they are not bounded by the Wiedemann-Franz law which strongly limits the efficiency of ordinary bulk systems. For this we study a charge fluctuating model and a model which additionally allows for spin fluctuations and phononic degrees of freedom. We find that in certain regimes quantum dots show very high efficiency when operated as power engines. [1] D. M. Kennes, ‘A Renormalization Group Approach to the Time Evolution of Correlated Quantum Dots’ Master’s thesis, RWTH Aachen (2011).

Authors

Authors

Kennes, Dante Marvin

Advisors

Meden, Volker

Identifier

  • URN: urn:nbn:de:hbz:82-opus-52421
  • REPORT NUMBER: RWTH-CONV-145372